The fastest developing country India is accountable for its major contribution to its economic development from the agriculture sector. It has been the primary source of living for 58% natives of the nation. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry, and fishing is estimated at Rs 17.67 trillion (US$ 274.23 billion) in FY18. Contrary to the popular narrative, agriculture has been transformed in the last 10 years. The second green revolution is underway.
In India the farming that is practiced is as below:
It is a self-sufficient farming system in which the ranchers focus on growing sufficient food to feed themselves and their entire families. The output is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus trade.
This process of farming is done by clearing a land by falling down the trees and burning the trunks and branches and after that cultivation is done on the field for next 2- 3 years and after that the land is
left abandoned as it loses its fertility and ranchers move to another fertile land. Dry paddy, maize, millets, and vegetables are the crops commonly grown in this type of farming.
This practice was introduced by the British in the 19th Century. This practice of farming is known as bush or tree plantation. It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges, etc. It is capital-intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilizers, irrigation, and transport facilities
This type of farming involves the use of fertilizers and pesticides on a large-scale on the field where irrigation possibilities are present. In this the yield per square unit area of land is high
This type of farming is practiced on land where irrigation is not very good. Here the land yielding per capacity of the square unit area is very low. The crop cultivated in this area are those which can withstand dry weather. Rajasthan, Gujrat, and Madhya Pradesh etc are some of its example states
In this type of farming multiple crops are grown simultaneously having a different maturing period. Crops are harvested as per maturity level. This types of crops are harvested in areas having a good amount of rainfall and facility of irrigation
This refers to the growing of number of Crops one after the other in a fixed rotation to maintain the fertility of the soil. The rotation of crops may be complete in a year in some of the areas while it may involve more than one year’s time is others.
Pulses or any leguminous crop is grown after the cereal crops. Legumes have the ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. Highly fertilizer-intensive crops like sugarcane or tobacco are rotated with cereal crops. The selection of crops for rotation depends upon the local soil conditions and the experience and the understanding of the farmers.
Sedentary Cultivation or Permanent Agriculture:
It is also known as settled cultivation. In it, farmers get settled at the place and practice continued use of land year after year with the variety of crops. In it, a permanent settlement of farmers exists. It is the normal system of agricultural practice found in almost every part of India.
Where lands are of sloping nature, this type of cultivation is practiced especially in hilly areas. The hill and mountain slopes are cut to form terrace sand the land is used in the same way as in permanent agriculture. Since the availability of flat land is limited terraces are made to provide a small patch of level land. Soil erosion is also checked due to terrace formation on hill slopes.
On the name of Agriculture, we have very promising and best NGO in Uttarakhand named as SUVIDHA
SUVIDHA abbreviated as Society for the Upliftment of Villagers & Development of Himalayan Areas is a nonprofit, rural development and voluntary organization founded in the year 2004 which aims at eliminating poverty, unemployment, poor health and illiteracy for 60% of citizens who still live in the backward areas of the nation. With over 12 years of experience in managing government/private sector projects, Suvidha is well equipped with the manpower and expertise to deliver holistic solutions in the field of Agriculture, Rural Development, Women Empowerment, Education and Health
Suvidha have focused on the development of the sustainable agriculture and have set its flag of development in different parts of Uttarakhand.
Promotion of Diversified Organic Farming: Project carried out in Bageshwar, Uttarakhand, converted and certified 512.06 hc of land as organic SHG and FIG were formed along with Market Linkages Established
Saturation of Selected Block (SSB Phase 2)- Carried out in Pithorgarh of Uttarakhand, the project converted and certified 2016.6 hc of land as Organic SHG and FIGs are formed covering household of 6735 units.
Adoption and Certification Of Organic farming In this areas village of Pithoragarh, Almora, and Bageshwar, 900 hc land was certified Organic covering household of 650 units
Suvidha has been always trying to set the benchmark for the upliftment of the farmer’s livelihood through continuous training and education on emerging trend of harvesting in an organic way, women’s empowerment, eliminating poverty, integrated rural development activities and climate change and biodiversity management with support from government and private companies aid.
To say the vision upon which Suvidha has started is “Striving to be the global leader for sustainable management of natural resources“
By Shiban Deb