The fastest developing country India is accountable for its major contribution to its economic development from the agriculture sector. It has been the primary source of living for 58% natives of the nation. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry, and fishing is estimated at Rs 17.67 trillion (US$ 274.23 billion) in FY18. Contrary to the popular narrative, agriculture has been transformed in the last 10 years. The second green revolution is underway.
In India the farming that is practiced is as below:
It is a self-sufficient farming system in which the ranchers focus on growing sufficient food to feed themselves and their entire families. The output is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus trade.
This process of farming is done by clearing a land by falling down the trees and burning the trunks and branches and after that cultivation is done on the field for next 2- 3 years and after that the land is
left abandoned as it loses its fertility and ranchers move to another fertile land. Dry paddy, maize, millets, and vegetables are the crops commonly grown in this type of farming.
This practice was introduced by the British in the 19th Century. This practice of farming is known as bush or tree plantation. It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges, etc. It is capital-intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilizers, irrigation, and transport facilities
This type of farming involves the use of fertilizers and pesticides on a large-scale on the field where irrigation possibilities are present. In this the yield per square unit area of land is high
This type of farming is practiced on land where irrigation is not very good. Here the land yielding per capacity of the square unit area is very low. The crop cultivated in this area are those which can withstand dry weather. Rajasthan, Gujrat, and Madhya Pradesh etc are some of its example states
In this type of farming multiple crops are grown simultaneously having a different maturing period. Crops are harvested as per maturity level. This types of crops are harvested in areas having a good amount of rainfall and facility of irrigation
This refers to the growing of number of Crops one after the other in a fixed rotation to maintain the fertility of the soil. The rotation of crops may be complete in a year in some of the areas while it may involve more than one year’s time is others.
Pulses or any leguminous crop is grown after the cereal crops. Legumes have the ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. Highly fertilizer-intensive crops like sugarcane or tobacco are rotated with cereal crops. The selection of crops for rotation depends upon the local soil conditions and the experience and the understanding of the farmers.
Sedentary Cultivation or Permanent Agriculture:
It is also known as settled cultivation. In it, farmers get settled at the place and practice continued use of land year after year with the variety of crops. In it, a permanent settlement of farmers exists. It is the normal system of agricultural practice found in almost every part of India.
Where lands are of sloping nature, this type of cultivation is practiced especially in hilly areas. The hill and mountain slopes are cut to form terrace sand the land is used in the same way as in permanent agriculture. Since the availability of flat land is limited terraces are made to provide a small patch of level land. Soil erosion is also checked due to terrace formation on hill slopes.
On the name of Agriculture, we have very promising and best NGO in Uttarakhand named as SUVIDHA
SUVIDHA abbreviated as Society for the Upliftment of Villagers & Development of Himalayan Areas is a nonprofit, rural development and voluntary organization founded in the year 2004 which aims at eliminating poverty, unemployment, poor health and illiteracy for 60% of citizens who still live in the backward areas of the nation. With over 12 years of experience in managing government/private sector projects, Suvidha is well equipped with the manpower and expertise to deliver holistic solutions in the field of Agriculture, Rural Development, Women Empowerment, Education and Health
Suvidha have focused on the development of the sustainable agriculture and have set its flag of development in different parts of Uttarakhand.
Promotion of Diversified Organic Farming: Project carried out in Bageshwar, Uttarakhand, converted and certified 512.06 hc of land as organic SHG and FIG were formed along with Market Linkages Established
Saturation of Selected Block (SSB Phase 2)- Carried out in Pithorgarh of Uttarakhand, the project converted and certified 2016.6 hc of land as Organic SHG and FIGs are formed covering household of 6735 units.
Adoption and Certification Of Organic farming In this areas village of Pithoragarh, Almora, and Bageshwar, 900 hc land was certified Organic covering household of 650 units
Suvidha has been always trying to set the benchmark for the upliftment of the farmer’s livelihood through continuous training and education on emerging trend of harvesting in an organic way, women’s empowerment, eliminating poverty, integrated rural development activities and climate change and biodiversity management with support from government and private companies aid.
To say the vision upon which Suvidha has started is “Striving to be the global leader for sustainable management of natural resources“
By Shiban Deb
A few terms mock arrangements. “Reasonable horticulture” has turned out to be specific of them. Presently to make sense of the most straightforward term of practical agribusiness, it very well may be said to be the procedure of creations of nourishment, or other fiber or creature items utilizing cultivating systems that protect the earth, general wellbeing, human networks, and creature welfare. This example of agribusiness empowers to yield more beneficial sustenance without bargaining future age capacity to do as such.
Professionals of supportable agribusiness try to blend three fundamental goals in their work: A functioning and exuberant condition, financial favorable position, and social and monetary value. Each person who is in exchange of sustenance framework can assume a part in guaranteeing a feasible rural structure.
The essential advantage of Sustainable Agriculture are :
Since manageable horticulture implies non utilizing of harmful pesticides, manufactured fiber or hereditarily altered seeds that corrupts the dirt fruitfulness, water, and nature. By developing the act of developing plants through training like yield turn, preservation culturing and field-based domesticated animals cultivation. Consequently, this procedure helps in ensuring the bio decent variety and encourage the advancement and upkeep of sound biological systems.
As said no training should come to the detriment of human well-being so is sustenance preparations. Feasible harvest ranches keep away from the utilizing of unsafe pesticides, therefore, they advance preparations of more secure vegetation which is secure to human wellbeing.
Manageable agriculturists and farmers treat creatures with care and regard, actualizing domesticated animals cultivation hones that ensure creatures’ well-being and prosperity. By raising domesticated animals on the field, these ranchers empower their creatures to move openly, take part in instinctual practices, expend a characteristic eating regimen, and stay away from the pressure and sickness related with constrained.
Here are 6 Sustainable agribusiness rehearses
Harvest Rotation: This training has been done from hundreds of years keeping in mind the end goal to unblemished soil ripeness and deplete its supplement altogether. Different harvests are seeded in various regions over various years so that succeeding yields restocks the supplements the previous one has removed from the horrid or tight clamp versa. The most acknowledged path is to seed grain trims after legumes. Legumes settle large amounts of nitrogen in the dirt, which the grains require a considerable measure of however are less ready to secure. Crop pivot likewise forestalls diseases. Leaving a field to go decrepit or planting a cover edit before the fundamental developed harvest is additionally astounding methods for saving the soundness of the dirt.
Product Diversity: While planting loads of various types of the plant is a brilliant strategy for supportable cultivating, it is a rarity indeed workable for business agriculturists who have a business opportunity for a specific yield. Be that as it may, by planting differing assortments of the one animal varieties, they can gather numerous advantages. Having various assortments makes the harvest more grounded as there is more hereditary decent variety.
Helpful Animals Product assorted variety is additionally an extraordinary method to control bother populaces. An assortment of plants will draw in a more extensive assortment of creepy crawlies and different animals, for example, winged creatures and bats, some of which will ideally originate before those that could harm crops. The utilization of normal predator-prey connections to control bugs additionally implies the further has no compelling reason to utilize synthetic pesticides (which can cause natural issues by running off the land into the water table and water bodies) thus setting aside some cash. The agriculturist can discharge populaces of useful creepy crawlies, for example, ladybugs and lacewings onto their yield to control bugs. On the other hand, they can plant the edges of fields with blossoms that will draw in creepy crawlies. Keeping or planting trees on the ranch will draw in flying creatures, as they are someplace to home, and bats, as the trees give some place to perch.
Overseen Grazing As it were, oversaw brushing could be viewed as likened to edit turn, just with creatures rather than plants. Basically, it includes moving animals to various fields so they can eat on various plants. This furnishes the creatures with a decent scope of supplements, yet in addition implies they are more averse to be presented to assemble ups of ailment or disease, which can happen in the event that they are kept on a similar field for quite a while. Moving domesticated animals between pastures are additionally useful for the dirt, as it isn’t compacted through unnecessary footfall (diminishing disintegration) and the compost deserted by the animals helps bolster fast regrowth of field plants.
Offer Locally One of the greatest reasons for ozone-depleting substances – and accordingly drivers of environmental change – is transportation in vehicles utilizing fuel got from non-renewable energy sources, and developing sustenance for utilization in different parts of the nation, or even globally, requires a ton of transportation. Offering sustenance in neighborhood markets lessens these emanations. There are numerous different advantages also. Sustenance sold locally needs less bundling, as it doesn’t have as long amongst reap and deal as nourishment developed for far-off business sectors.
Elective Energy A business agriculturist will have more prominent vitality needs than the smallholding permaculture cultivator, just because of the considerably bigger size of the land under development. Be that as it may, he can even now use elective, economical types of vitality to perform many capacities on the homestead, as opposed to depending on non-renewable energy source fuelled hardware. Vehicles can be changed over to keep running on biodiesel, which is fabricated shape cottonseed oil. Such a change ought to demonstrate monetarily useful over the long haul as biodiesel is for the most part less expensive than ordinary fuel. A breeze turbine can bridle vitality to drive electrical engines. Sunlight based power might be more advantageous. Introducing some sunlight based boards on the land can give vitality to warm water or structures, and give the power to control, for instance, electric fences or lighting.
By: Shiban Deb
Bio gas is a naturally produced gas obtained from the decomposition of organic waste. Organic waste such as food scraps and animal waste when breaks down in an oxygen free environment they release a blend of gases, primarily methane and carbon dioxide.
This process of producing bio gas is also known as anaerobic digestion (Anaerobic digestion is a series of biological processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen)
All organic wastage such as animal wastage, food scraps, waste water and sewage are all capable for producing gas by the process of anaerobic digestion. Due to high content of bio gas, it is combustible and therefore illuminates a deep blue frame and can be used as a natural source of energy
The Ecology of Bio Gas
Bio gas is known as environmental friendly source of energy because it mitigates two of the major environmental issues simultaneously:
- The prevailing global wastage leads to execution of dangerous gas i.e methane each day
- The dependence on fossil fuel in order to meet the global demand for energy
When we are using this organic wastage in producing bio gas we are protecting the nature by preventing it from soil pollution, water and air pollution that have been a major problem of current environment.Moreover bio gas usage doesn’t requires fossil fuel extraction to produce energy. Instead biogas converts the problematic gas into a much safer form which benefits in creating energy.
Now let us understand how this bio gas is produced from the organic waste. To produce this bio gas , organic matters ferments with the help of bacterial communities. Four stages of fermentation converts organic wastage from initial composition to bio gas state.
- The acideogenic bacteria convert sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids.
- At the third stage the acetogenic bacteria convert the organic acids into acetic acid, hydrogen, ammonia, and carbon dioxide, allowing for the final stage- the methanogens.
- The first stage of the digestion process is the hydrolysis stage. In the hydrolysis stage insoluble organic polymers (such as carbohydrates) are broken down, making it accessible to the next stage of bacteria called acidogenic bacteria.
- The methanogens convert these final components into methane and carbon dioxide- which can then be used as a flammable, green energy
Advantage of Bio Gas
Free medium of energy
Subtraction of indoor air pollution and deforestation
Curtailment of workload in collecting firewood and in cooking
Limited affair skills or maintenance required
Devote to contracting the discharge of gases that grant to global warming
Deforestation and soil erosion can be minimize
Cooking on biogas is expeditious and effortless than cooking with firewood
Copyright SUVIDHA 2018
You’re energetic about developing products of the soil or raising animals and have enough involvement to begin cultivating. However, while energy and experience are as critical to a fruitful ranch as sound soil, starting agriculturists require more to grow an effective homestead—simply ask the ranchers with a few developing seasons in the books and offer out group clamoring for their meats, eggs and create at the agriculturists’ markets.
A well-maintained garden is a healthy garden. Only a garden that is maintained produces edible fruits and vegetables as well as beautiful flowers. Maintaining the garden also improves the desirability of the property. A neglected garden produces weeds and fat garden pests.
Starting to build a new garden isn’t difficult. Most people begin by going out into their yards with a shovel or garden tiller, digging up the dirt and putting in a few plants. Following the organic and natural methods, add a little mulch or compost, and you’re well on your way to make good soil for your homegrown vegetables. But in the long run, the success of your garden depends on making healthy garden soil. The more you can do to keep your soil healthy, the more productive your garden will be and the higher the quality of your crops.